Bio1151 Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein
  1. A major function of DNA is to direct the synthesis of           in two steps:                and              ; this flow of information is known as the central        .

  2. In prokaryotes, transcription and translation take place                 .

  3. In eukaryotes, an intermediate step of RNA             is needed due to the presence of the          .

  4. Transcription has three stages:             ,             , and              .

    Transcription review and exercise:
  5. In eukaryotes, the transcript is a           and needs to be processed to form the mature       that will used in translation.

    RNA Processing review:
  6. The genetic information on mRNA is encoded as a sequence of RNA triplets, or         .

  7. The     possible codons constitute the genetic code.

  8. The mature mRNA exits the nucleus, and translation takes place on            , together with           RNA (tRNA).

  9. The            on the transfer RNA ( tRNA ) binds with the mRNA        to add a specific amino acid to the polypeptide chain.

  10. Translation also has three stages:             ,             , and              .

    Translation review:
  11. Central dogma summary.

  12.            are changes in the DNA of a cell which may lead to an abnormal          .
    •        mutations are changes in one pair of nucleotides.

    • A base-pair substitution mutation may result in a         ,           , or           mutation.

    • Insertions and            of nucleotide pairs may produce             mutations.