Bio1151 Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations
  1. A             is a localized group of individuals of a species.

  2. Natural selection acts on individuals, but              evolve, based on variations that are inherited over generations.

  3. As a population evolves, its heritable variation is reflected in change of         and           frequencies.

  4. A non-evolving population reaches the                 equilibrium due to Mendelian              of alleles.

  5. At Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the distribution of 2          p and q in a population can be modeled by two equations.

  6. Natural populations may         if conditions deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg model.
    • Genetic        in small populations tends to         genetic variation. In very small populations the              effect can contribute to severe loss of genetic diversity.

    • Gene       from the movement of individuals or gametes between populations can affect allele frequencies and tends to         genetic differences between populations.

    •           is the basis for natural selection, and results in unequal reproduction of alleles.

    • Sexually reproductive organisms often exhibit            mating behaviors such as              selection and              selection.

    • Natural selection is the major mechanism that drives adaptive            .

      Causes of Evolutionary Change: