Bio1151 Chapter 34 Vertebrates
  1. Vertebrates possess            , and are a sub-phylum of phylum           .

  2. Craniates are chordates that have a       and includes hagfish.

  3.              are craniates that have a           , made of vertebrae.

  4.               are vertebrates that have       that evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits.

  5.                 include sharks and rays with a skeleton made of            .

  6.               are fish with a       endoskeleton.

    •                 are ray-finned fishes.

    •                are lobe-finned fishes with more muscular pelvic and pectoral fins and include coelacanths and lungfishes.

  7. Tetrapods are Gnathostomes that have       limbs, and evolved from lobe-finned fish whose fins developed into limbs adapted for terrestrial life.

  8.           undergo                from aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult.

    • There are        orders:          are salamanders,        are frogs and toads, and        are caecilians.

  9. Amniotes are            that have an           egg adapted for terrestrial life.

  10. Living reptiles include          ,         ,          ,               , and        .

  11. Mammalia are the only surviving clade of            among the amniotes.

    • Monotremes are the only mammals that lay        .

    • Marsupials complete embryonic development within a maternal pouch called            .

    • Eutherians are            mammals that complete their embryonic development within a         , joined to the mother by the placenta.
  12. Anthropoids are a branch of           and include monkeys and hominoids called       .

  13. Hominin are more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees and originated in          about 6-7 million years ago.

  14. The Homo genus slowly became more fully          and evolved a large        .

    Summary: Characteristics of chordates