Unit 3: Genetics Extras  Study Guide

Chapter 16 9 Review
  1. The physical structure of nucleic acids such as _ANI_16,5 RNA or was discovered by Watson and Crick from photos of crystallography made by Rosalind Franklin.
  2. DNA is a double , with the sugar-phosphate backbones on the outside, and pairs of bases on the _act_16&C inside.
  3. _act_16&B Weak bonds form between the complementary base pairs: (A) always pairs with (T), and (C) always pairs with (G).
  4. The base-pairing rules are used for DNA : each strand acts as a for building a strand.
  5. The replication occurs in three phases: , , and .
    _act_16&D Summary: DNA replication
  6. Base-pairing is about 99.999% accurate, an error occurs about 1 in base pairs. DNA can "proofread" during polymerization and replace most incorrect nucleotides.
  7. Uncorrected DNA can be repaired by nucleotide repair.
  8. The overall error rate is about 1 in 10 nucleotides, or 99.99999999% accurate.
  9. The ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes get with each round of replication.
    • Each chromosome terminates in a , that postpones the erosion of genes near the ends.
    • Eukaryotic cells contain the enzyme to lengthen telomeres in gametes.
  10. Eukaryotic DNA is packaged with proteins to form , which condense into visible chromosomes during mitosis.
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